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Tax rules for non-residents, R. Saraval, [Mantua] 1774

נוסח החרם - Community

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  • Lot Number 54251
  • Title (English) Tax rules for non-residents
  • Title (Hebrew) נוסח החרם
  • Note Community
  • Author R. Jacob Raphael b.Simhah Judah Saraval
  • City [Mantua]
  • Publisher [Community]
  • Publication Date 1774
  • Estimated Price - Low 500
  • Estimated Price - High 1,000

  • Item # 2569458
  • End Date
  • Start Date

Physical Description

Broadside, large folio, 355:250 mm., light staining, creased on folds.


Detail Description

Announcing regulations concerning taxes imposed on non-resident merchants and the oath related thereto by the Jewish community in order to meet the community’s financial obligations to the state. It includes an oath in Hebrew by the community leaders excommunicating all who disobey and blessing all that follow the aforesaid.

R. Jacob Raphael b.Simhah Judah Saraval (1707?–1782), Italian rabbi, man of letters, and musician. R. Saraval was born in Venice. In 1752 he was appointed rabbi of Mantua and many of the documents in the communal archives bear his signature. During the 1760s and 1770s he traveled to Holland and England on behalf of his community. When the antisemitic lawyer Giovanni Battista Benedetti of Ferrara published his Dissertazione della Religione e del Giuramento degli Ebrei at the beginning of the 1770s, R. Saraval rejoined with Lettera apologetica (Mantua, 1775). He was also known as a preacher, poet, and composer of piyyutim. In addition he translated from various languages. One of his translations, the libretto of Handel's oratorio Esther (apparently done at the request of the Jews of England and Holland), is one of the first free verse translations from English to Hebrew without recourse to the traditional meters.

Among his translations from Hebrew to Italian are: Avot (Venice, 1729, with Simeon Calimani); Ḥovot ha-Levavot of *Baḥya ibn Paquda (Avvertimenti all'anima, Venice, 1806); and various piyyutim from the Sephardi liturgy. He wrote the Kinat Sofedim (Mantua, 1776) to commemorate the earthquake in Mantua which claimed 65 Jewish victims. On returning from his travels in Holland and England, he wrote Viaggi in Olanda (Venice, 1807) on his Dutch journey.


Hebrew Description

דף גדול מודפס: "נוסח החרם חמור" – נוסח החרם שהוכרז בקהילה היהודית  מטעם השלטונות הנוצריים..

הדף שלפנינו כולל את נוסח החרם החריף (בעברית) שהוטל על הקהילה היהודית. החרם החמור שהוטל נועד להרתיע אנשים מלעבור על תקנות הכנסיה, שכללו הגבלות שונות על חופש המסחר של יהודי העיר.



Steinschneider, in: mgwj, 43 (1899), 569f.; C. Roth, History of the Jews in Venice (1930), 341–3; Schirmann, Italyah, 401–7; idem, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 78–79; Gorali, in: Taẓlil, 2 (1961), 73–84; S. Simonsohn, Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Dukkasut Mantovah, 2 vols. (1962–64), index; I. Levi, in: Il Vessillo Israelitico, 53 (1905), 58f.